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Title: Process optimization of liquid biofuel production from waste apple pomace using microbial cultures
Researcher: Surya Karan
Guide(s): Kumar Dinesh
Keywords: Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology
Life Sciences
University: Shoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences
Completed Date: 2019
Abstract: newline ABSTRACT newlineApple pomace is an agro-industrial lignocellulosic waste generated after extraction of newlinejuice from fresh apples. It is prone to microbial growth and spoilage causing newlineenvironmental pollution. Conversion of apple pomace into valuable products like newlinebiofuels (ethanol and n-butanol) by solid-state fermentation was investigated in this newlinestudy for safe and environment friendly disposal of this waste. For this, fifteen newlinecolonies of microorganims capable of utilizing apple pomace as sole carbon source newlinewere isolated from apple pomace waste dumping site soil collected from Himachal newlinePradesh Horticultural Produce Processing and Marketing Corporation (HPMC), newlineprocessing plant at Parwanoo, Himachal Pradesh, India. All the isolates exhibited newlinecellulase and xylanase activities. Highest cellulase activity was given by isolate APW- newline13 (502.479±0.016 U/mL/min) while lowest cellulase activity was exhibited by newlineisolate APW-3 (228.194±0.011 U/mL/min). On the other hand, highest xylanase newlineactivity (1010.650±0.009 U/mL/min) was given by isolate APW-4 and isolate APW-3 newlineshowed lowest xylanase activity (185.256±0.008 U/mL/min). Only three isolates viz. newlineAPW-12, APW-4 and APW-2 produced ethanol in significant amounts i.e. newline36.061±0.013 g/L, 22.667±0.006 g/L and 21.894±0.005 g/L respectively. Production newlineof n-butanol was not observed in any of the isolates. On the basis of this preliminary newlinescreening, two isolates APW-12 and APW-13 were selected further for their use as cocultures newlinewith primary cultures i.e. Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 173 and newlineClostridium acetobutylicum NCIM 2842 in ethanol and n-butanol production newlinerespectively. Based on biochemical characteristics it was found that isolate APW-12 newlinebelonged to genus Actinomyces and isolate APW-13 belonged to genus Bacillus. newlinePhysico-chemical composition of apple pomace revealed presence of pectin newline(15.28±0.017% w/w), cellulose (20.88±0.049% w/w), hemicellulose (23.02±0.027% newlinew/w) and lignin (17.70±0.023% w/w) as major cellwall components. Also, newlinephytochemical analysis of apple pomace using GC-MS resulted in identification of 24 newlinedifferent compounds including (Z,Z)-9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, and#946;-Sitosterol, newlineHexadecanoic acid, 1-Heptacosanol, Octadecanoic acid, 2-Monolinolein, newlineHexatriacontane, 17-Pentatriacontene and and#945;-Amyrin as major compounds. newlinexi newlineHydrothermal pretreatment of apple pomace under optimized conditions (121 newlineºC for 30 min) resulted in 0.062±0.015 g reducing sugars/g apple pomace. On the newlineother hand, combined enzymatic and hydrothermal pretreatment of apple pomace newlineresulted in 0.431±0.007 g reducing sugars/g apple pomace under optimum conditions newlinei.e. enzyme concentration 300 g/L, substrate concentration 4 g, 50 ºC and incubation newlinetime 30 min followed by hydrothermal pretreatment at 121 ºC for 30 min. newlineSolid-state ethanolic fermentation under optimum conditions (relative initial newlinemoisture in apple pomace 100% w/w, 30 ºC; S. cerevisiae inoculum size 4% v/w, coculture newline(APW-12) inoculum size 6% v/w and 1M ammonium sulphate 2% v/w) using newlinepretreated apple pomace as substrate resulted in 17.5 g ethanol per 100 g of waste newlineapple pomace. newlineSimilarly, optimized solid-state ABE fermentation (optimum conditions: newlinerelative initial moisture in apple pomace, 100% w/w; temperature, 37 ºC; C. newlineacetobutylicum inoculum concentration, 9% v/w; co-culture (APW-13) inoculum newlineconcentration, 7% v/w and 1M ammonium sulphate, 3% v/w) for n-butanol newlineproduction using Clostridium acetobutylicum as primary culture and APW-13 as coculture newlineresulted in 1.044 g n-butanol per 100 g of waste apple pomace. Supplementing newlineapple pomace with mineral salts is required to improve the biobutanol production newlinefrom waste apple pomace. newlineIn conclusion, the bioprocess proposed in this study is efficient in safe and newlineenvironment friendly disposal of apple pomace with production of bioethanol and newlinebiobutanol. Furthermore, by using inexpensive, inedible and waste feedstock like newlineapple pomace, the initial cost of biofuel production can be significantly reduced. newlineKeywords: Agro-industrial waste, apple pomace, lignocellulosic biomass, newlinepretreatment, Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 173, Clostridium acetobutylicum newlineNCIM 2842, isolate APW-12, isolate APW-13, solid-state fermentation, optimization, newlinebiofuel, ethanol, n-butanol production. newlinexii
Pagination: 158p
Appears in Departments:Faculty Of Biotechnology

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02 certificates.pdf140.21 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
03 contents.pdf63.26 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
04 acknowledgements.pdf53.92 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
05 list of abbreviations.pdf59.57 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
06 list of tables.pdf60.4 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
07 list of figures.pdf71.27 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
08 abstract.pdf70.6 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
09 chapter-1.pdf4.66 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
10 chapter-2.pdf4.84 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
11 chapter-3.pdf4.71 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
12 chapter-4.pdf5.49 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
13 chapter-5.pdf4.66 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
14 chapter-6.pdf4.65 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
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16 chapter-8.pdf4.67 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
17 chapter-9.pdf4.65 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
18 patent.pdf434.71 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
19 paper-1.pdf271.52 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
80_recommendation.pdf33.54 kBAdobe PDFView/Open

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