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dc.description.abstractnewline Abstract newlinevi newlineOral biofilms are the population of microbes associated with the oral cavity which are encased in an extracellular polymeric material. These biofilms are the root cause of several diseases which can create problems for the host system. Bacteria forming biofilm are resistant to antibiotics thus it is difficult to control the biofilm. The medicinal plants have been acknowledged to cure many diseases generated by oral pathogens. In Ayurveda system, Juglans regia, Acacia nelotica, and Terminalia arjuna are reported to possess potent activity against dental plaque. In the present study, the effect of methanolic bark extract and fractions of Juglans regia, Terminalia arjuna, Acacia nilotica and the combined effect of Juglans regia with Acacia nilotica and Terminalia arjuna was studied. Antibacterial assay was carried out using well diffusion method against clinical and standard strains of bacteria e.g. Streptococcus mutans MTCC-890), Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-737) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC-741). The whole extract of J.regia, as well as the combined effect of its ethyl acetate fraction with an n-butanol fraction of Terminalia arjuna, was found to be more effective as anti-cariogenic medicine against these oral microorganisms. After that MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) and MBC (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration) value were evaluated using the broth microdilution method. The MIC and MBC results revealed that the combination of Juglans regia fraction(ethyl acetate) with Terminalia arjuna fraction(n-butanol) showed lowest MIC and MBC values with concentrations ranging in between 0.78 mg/ml-1.56 mg/ml; suggesting more effective inhibitory effect against the oral flora, followed by Juglans regia fraction (ethyl acetate) alone of concentrations ranging between 0.78 mg/ml -6.25 mg/ml and Juglans regia fraction(ethyl acetate) in combination with Acacia nelotica fraction (ethyl acetate) concentration ranging between 1.56mg/ml- 3.125 mg/ml. In the present study, the phytochemical analysis of methanolic bark extract of Juglans regia, Terminalia arjuna, and Acacia nilotica confirmed the presence of Alkaloids, Flavonoids, phenols, tannins, terpenoids, and glycosides but flavonoids and terpenoids were absent in Acacia nilotica extract. Moreover, phytochemical analysis of ethyl acetate fraction of Juglans regia revealed the presence of Alkaloids, flavonoids terpenoids, Tannins, glycosides, and phenols. The total phenolic and flavonoid content was estimated using the standard curve equation of gallic acid and quercetin. A standard curve using different concentrations of Gallic acid and Quercetin was plotted from which the concentration newlineof phenols in the test sample was calculated and expressed as mg/g. The total phenolic and flavonoid content of methanolic extract of Juglans regia was found to be 43.35±0.079 and newlineAbstract newlinevii newline17.28±0.125. The free radical scavenging activity was determined using DPPH assay. It was observed that scavenging of DPPH increased with the increase in concentration for both standard ascorbic and methanolic bark extract of Juglans regia. All the oral microorganisms which were used in the study were capable of forming a biofilm. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (cli) and Streptococcus mutans (std) produced strong biofilms while all the other bacterial strains produced moderate biofilms. The antibiofilm activity assay of methanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction of J. regia alone and combined effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Juglans regia with an n-butanol fraction of Terminalia arjuna on biofilm inhibition revealed the significant destruction of the biofilms produced by oral pathogens. The percentage inhibition was calculated which ranged in between 92.01%-99.12%for the combination of J.regia and T. arjuna, followed by the ethyl acetate fraction of Juglans regia (87.36%-97.04%) and the combination of ethyl acetate fraction of J.regia with ethyl acetate fraction of Acacia nilotica (76.41%- 95.95%). However, the percentage of inhibition for biofilms remains low for an individual methanolic extract of Juglans regia in comparison to the combinations (51.54%-80.00%). In conclusion, the combination of ethyl acetate fraction of Juglans regia with an n-butanol fraction of Terminalia arjuna found to be the most effective antimicrobial agent and had the capability to control biofilm formation. The results obtained in the study clearly shows that bark from these plants may be considered as a good candidate for employment as an effective antimicrobial agent against oral bacteria which can cause many oral diseases. To elevate oral sanitation, medicinal plant-based mouthwash can be used as a mediator and act as a part of efficient home care medication. newlineKeywords: S. mutans, oral pathogens, medicinal plants, Plant Formulations, Herbal mouthwash, and Biofilms
dc.titleInhibitory Role of Bioactive Fractions of Juglans Regia Against Biofilm Production in Bacteria
dc.creator.researcherKhan, Ishfaq Ahmed
dc.subject.keywordLife Sciences,Microbiology,Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology
dc.description.noteConclusion p., 41; Recommendation and Future Direction p., 42; Reference p., 43-52
dc.contributor.guideKhan, Azhar
dc.publisher.universityShoolini University of Biotechnology and Management Sciences
dc.publisher.institutionFaculty Of Biotechnology
Appears in Departments:Faculty Of Biotechnology

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10. introduction.pdfAttached File586.73 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
11. review of literature.f.pdf633.24 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
12.materials and methods..pdf539.26 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
13. results.pdf1.07 MBAdobe PDFView/Open
14.discussion.pdf481.9 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
15.conclusion..pdf293.45 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
16. recommendations.f.pdf291.73 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
17. references.pdf642.43 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
1 front page.pdf321.14 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
2 declaration by the candidate.pdf153.33 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
3. certificates.pdf581.52 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
4.table of contents.pdf185.91 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
5. acknowledgement.pdf303.85 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
6. list of abbreviations and symbols.pdf171.46 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
7. list of tables.pdf92.88 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
8. list of figures.pdf101.11 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
9. abstract.pdf468.18 kBAdobe PDFView/Open

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