Shodhganga Collection:http://hdl.handle.net/10603/115112019-04-20T04:19:44Z2019-04-20T04:19:44ZAchievement in Mathematics in Relation to Mathematics Anxiety and Self Efficacy among Secondary School Studentshttp://hdl.handle.net/10603/2220832018-12-04T08:55:08ZTitle: Achievement in Mathematics in Relation to Mathematics Anxiety and Self Efficacy among Secondary School Students
Abstract: newlineThis study is based on a theoretical rationale which has been developed on the basis of several theories and research findings already available in this field. Researches in the field of Mathematics education have suggested many variables which have potential impact on mathematics achievement. These variables may affect mathematics achievement in different manners and at varied levels. Mathematics anxiety and mathematics self-efficacy are two potential variables which may affect mathematics achievement in different ways.
newlineSelf-efficacy is most recognized and widely used concept of the social cognitive theory. It is based on triadic model, in which human functioning is viewed as the product of a dynamic interplay between personal factors (i.e., cognition, emotions and biological events), behavior, and environmental factors (Bandura, 1997; Pajares, 2006). It can be enhanced by five main sources. These are Mastery experiences (Performance accomplishments), Vicarious experiences, Verbal persuasion, Psychological and affective states and integration of efficacy information (Bandura, 1997). Mathematics self-efficacy is a belief of student to perform successfully in any problematic situation related to Mathematics. Pajares, and Kranzler (1995) have shown that mathematics self-efficacy is the significant and strongest predictor of mathematics achievement. It was also found that, between mathematical competency and mathematics self-efficacy, self-efficacy is more predictive than the mathematical competency (Pietsch, Walker, and Champman, 2003). Solemani, and Rekabdar (2006); Hacket, and Betz (1989); Bong, and Skoalivik (2003), Schunk (1982); and Pajares, and Miller (1994) have found that mathematics achievement and mathematics self-efficacy were significantly correlated and viewed self-efficacy as a strong predictor of mathematics achievement. It is a general perception about Mathematics that it is a difficult subject. Due to its nature and prevalent myth in society many college students feel anxiety towards this subject (Gourgey, 1993). Some people accept that for them it is very difficult subject to learn and confess that they are not good at math (Lazarus, 1975). Female students are more prone to mathematics anxiety and they strive to escape the learning of this subject. Tobias, and Weissbrod (1980), Hembree (1990) and Randhawa (1994) have found that girls are more anxious of Mathematics subject. If students are anxious and have low perception of their academic competencies their performance will be low in comparison to those students who are less anxious and have high perception of their academic competencies. It is an adverse emotional reaction to Mathematics or the prospect of doing Mathematics (Hembree, 1990). Students and teachers both may be affected by mathematics anxiety. Pradeep (2011) has found negative relationship between Mathematics performance and Mathematics anxiety, Mathematics performance and test anxiety. Similar results were also found by Preston (1986), Hafner (2008), Hembree (1990) etc.
newlineIt is apparent from the above discussion that both mathematics anxiety and mathematics self-efficacy are potential variables for mathematics achievement and the investigator could not found any study which explains the relationship among mathematics achievement, mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics anxiety. Also, No study was found to explain the contribution of mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics anxiety in describing mathematics achievement. Therefore, researcher has chosen this topic for intensive and detailed study.
newlineAdolescents experiences of discrimination in relation to selected dimensions of school culture a study on subaltern groupshttp://hdl.handle.net/10603/2217422018-11-29T10:51:14ZTitle: Adolescents experiences of discrimination in relation to selected dimensions of school culture a study on subaltern groups
Abstract: Schools are the replicas of societies. Therefore sometimes discrimination which exists in the society creeps into whole school culture that leads to feeling of discrimination particularly among vulnerable groups, like girls, scheduled caste/scheduled tribes, minorities. Kao and Thompson (2003) remarks that school contexts generally reflects the larger macro system of stratification where racial ethnic inequality, socio-economic inequality, discrimination are normative .
newlineStudies reveal that discrimination is prevalent in our schools. Hanna and Linden (2009) in their study Measuring Discrimination in education found that top performing females tend to lose most due to discrimination. Paradies (2006); Williams and Mohammed (2009); Williams, Neighbor and Jackson (2003) also concluded that racial discrimination pervades many aspects of human life and is also considered as a risk factor adversely affecting psychological functioning and mental health outcomes for adolescents. Discrimination is practiced in schools and society which influences mental and physical health, adolescents performance, and environment of the school (Stone, and Meekyung, 2005; Madried, 2010; Hatzenhuehler, Corbin, and Fromme, 2010; and Schwatitz, and Meyer, 2010). The other variables with which discrimination is studied are Parental Educational Attainment (Sheylal, Valerie, and pati, 2010); Emotional Distress (Maccabe, J. ,2009); Ethenic Identity (Mossakowski, 2003); Dropout Behavior (Felice, 1981); psychological functioning (Sellers, Linder, Martin, and Lewis, 2006) etc. This discrimination is suffered especially by subaltern groups. Aronowitz and Giroux (1985) highlighted that the resistance to schooling comes from adolescents of the subordinate classes. The evidences above conclude that discrimination exists in our school system.
newlineThere is a culture in every society; similarly schools do have its own particular cultural pattern.Mathematical Creativity Mathematical Aptitude and Mathematical Problem Solving Performance A Cross Lagged Panel Analysishttp://hdl.handle.net/10603/2202172018-11-14T06:30:07ZTitle: Mathematical Creativity Mathematical Aptitude and Mathematical Problem Solving Performance A Cross Lagged Panel Analysis
Abstract: Today we live in scientific and technological era. Therefore, every country has a great need of creative talent to maintain its own existence and national prosperity. The development of a nation depends upon gray gold rather than black gold. There is a need to identifying creative mathematicians, creative scientists, creative doctors, etc. Due to maximum utilization of natural resources, there is always a need of potential persons. Aptitude can be considered as the phase or area of an individual s mental ability in which he can be expected to continue to improve a point of exceptional performance. Problem solving is the heart of mathematics (Halmos, 1980) and supposed to play a crucial role in mathematics education. It plays an important role to solve Real world problems. Mathematics problem solving is central point of mathematics learning. To focus on mathematical creativity without considering their mathematical aptitude and mathematical problem solving ability is nearly similar to studying plant growth without considering the soil. It is an incomplete attempt to construct the theory of mathematical creativity. In the present study the researcher has considered mathematical creativity and its relationship to mathematical aptitude and mathematical problem solving performance as an important variable.
newlineConceptual Background of the Problem
newlineThere has long been an on-going debate about the positive relationship between mathematical creativity and mathematical aptitude (Jenson, 1973; and Tuli, 1979) but in contrast, the results of studies do not support similar findings (Buckeye, 1963 and Kesse, 1972). Verma (1991) and Srivastva (1992) found significant relationship between scientific creativity and scientific aptitude. Singh (1993) and Somashekhar (1998) reported that mathematical creativity does not contribute significantly in the development of problem solving performance in mathematics.
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